MSEL = 25
Several leptoquark production processes are included. Currently only one leptoquark species has been implemented, as particle 42, denoted . The leptoquark is assumed to carry specific quark and lepton quantum numbers, by default quark plus electron. These flavour numbers are conserved, i.e. a process such as is not allowed. This may be a bit restrictive, but it represents one of many leptoquark possibilities. The spin of the leptoquark is assumed to be zero, so its decay is isotropic. Vector leptoquarks have not yet been implemented.
Although only one leptoquark is implemented, its flavours may be changed arbitrarily to study the different possibilities. The flavours of the leptoquark are defined by the quark and lepton flavours in the decay mode list. Since only one decay channel is allowed, this means that the quark flavour is stored in KFDP(MDCY(42,2),1) and the lepton one in KFDP(MDCY(42,2),2). The former must always be a quark, while the latter could be a lepton or an antilepton; a charge-conjugate partner is automatically defined by the program. At initialization, the charge is recalculated as a function of the flavours defined; also the leptoquark name is redefined to be of the type 'LQ_(q)(l)', where actual quark (q) and lepton (l) flavours are displayed.
The vertex contains an undetermined Yukawa coupling strength, which fixes both the width of the leptoquark and the cross section for many of the production graphs. This strength may be changed in PARU(151) which corresponds to the factor of [Hew88], i.e. to , where is the Yukawa coupling strength of [Wud86]. Note that PARU(151) is thus quadratic in the coupling.
The leptoquark is likely to be fairly long-lived, in which case it has time to fragment into a mesonic- or baryonic-type state, which would decay later on. This is a bit tedious to handle; therefore the leptoquark is always assumed to decay before fragmentation. This simplification should not have a major impact on experimental analyses [Fri97].
Inside the program, the leptoquark is treated as a resonance. Since it carries colour, some extra care is required. In particular, the leptoquark should not be made stable by modifying either MDCY(42,1) or MSTP(41): then the leptoquark would be handed undecayed to PYTHIA, which would try to fragment it (as it does with any other coloured object) unsuccessfully, leading to error messages and a premature conclusion of the run.