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Particle Codes

The Particle Data Group particle code [PDG88,PDG92,PDG00] is used consistently throughout the program. Almost all known discrepancies between earlier versions of the PDG standard and the PYTHIA usage have now been resolved. The one known exception is the (very uncertain) classification of $\mathrm{f}_0(980)$, with $\mathrm{f}_0(1370)$ also affected as a consequence. There is also a possible point of confusion in the technicolor sector between ${\pi'}^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ and $\eta_{\mathrm{tc}}$. The latter is retained for historical reasons, whereas the former was introduced for consistency in models of top-color-assisted technicolor. The PDG standard, with the local PYTHIA extensions, is referred to as the KF particle code. This code you have to be thoroughly familiar with. It is described below.

The KF code is not convenient for a direct storing of masses, decay data, or other particle properties, since the KF codes are so spread out. Instead a compressed code KC between 1 and 500 is used here. A particle and its antiparticle are mapped to the same KC code, but else the mapping is unique. Normally this code is only used at very specific places in the program, not visible to the user. If need be, the correspondence can always be obtained by using the function PYCOMP, i.e. KC = PYCOMP(KF). This mapping is not hardcoded, but can be changed by user intervention, e.g. by introducing new particles with the PYUPDA facility. It is therefore not intended that you should ever want or need to know any KC codes at all. It may be useful to know, however, that for codes smaller than 80, KF and KC agree. Normally a user would never do the inverse mapping, but we note that this is stored as KF = KCHG(KC,4), making use of the KCHG array in the PYDAT2 common block. Of course, the sign of a particle could never be recovered by this inverse operation.

The particle names printed in the tables in this section correspond to the ones obtained with the routine PYNAME, which is used extensively, e.g. in PYLIST. Greek characters are spelt out in full, with a capital first letter to correspond to a capital Greek letter. Generically the name of a particle is made up of the following pieces:

The basic root name. This includes a * for most spin 1 ($L = 0$) mesons and spin $3/2$ baryons, and a $'$ for some spin $1/2$ baryons (where there are two states to be distinguished, cf. $\Lambda$-$\Sigma^0$). The rules for heavy baryon naming are in accordance with the 1986 Particle Data Group conventions [PDG86]. For mesons with one unit of orbital angular momentum, K (D, B, ...) is used for quark-spin 0 and K* (D*, B*, ...) for quark-spin 1 mesons; the convention for `*' may here deviate slightly from the one used by the PDG.
Any lower indices, separated from the root by a _. For heavy hadrons, this is the additional heavy-flavour content not inherent in the root itself. For a diquark, it is the spin.
The characters `bar' for an antiparticle, wherever the distinction between particle and antiparticle is not inherent in the charge information.
Charge information: $++$, $+$, $0$, $-$, or $--$. Charge is not given for quarks or diquarks. Some neutral particles which are customarily given without a 0 also here lack it, such as neutrinos, $\mathrm{g}$, $\gamma$, and flavour-diagonal mesons other than $\pi^0$ and $\rho^0$. Note that charge is included both for the proton and the neutron. While non-standard, it is helpful in avoiding misunderstandings when looking at an event listing.

Below follows a list of KF particle codes. The list is not complete; a more extensive one may be obtained with CALL PYLIST(11). Particles are grouped together, and the basic rules are described for each group. Whenever a distinct antiparticle exists, it is given the same KF code with a minus sign (whereas KC codes are always positive).

Quarks and leptons, Table [*].
This group contains the basic building blocks of matter, arranged according to family, with the lower member of weak isodoublets also having the smaller code (thus $\d $ precedes $\u $). A fourth generation is included as part of the scenarios for exotic physics. The quark codes are used as building blocks for the diquark, meson and baryon codes below.

Table: Quark and lepton codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
1 $\d $ d 11 $\mathrm{e}^-$ e-
2 $\u $ u 12 $\nu_{\mathrm{e}}$ nu_e
3 $\mathrm{s}$ s 13 $\mu^-$ mu-
4 $\c $ c 14 $\nu_{\mu}$ nu_mu
5 $\b $ b 15 $\tau^-$ tau-
6 $\t $ t 16 $\nu_{\tau}$ nu_tau
7 $\b '$ b' 17 $\tau'$ tau'
8 $\t '$ t' 18 $\nu'_{\tau}$ nu'_tau
9     19    
10     20    

Gauge bosons and other fundamental bosons, Table [*].
This group includes all the gauge and Higgs bosons of the Standard Model, as well as some of the bosons appearing in various extensions of it. They correspond to one extra U(1) and one extra SU(2) group, a further Higgs doublet, a graviton, a horizontal gauge boson $\mathrm{R}$ (coupling between families), and a (scalar) leptoquark $\L _{\mathrm{Q}}$.

Table: Gauge boson and other fundamental boson codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
21 $\mathrm{g}$ g 31    
22 $\gamma$ gamma 32 $\mathrm{Z}'^0$ Z'0
23 $\mathrm{Z}^0$ Z0 33 $\mathrm{Z}''^0$ Z"0
24 $\mathrm{W}^+$ W+ 34 $\mathrm{W}'^+$ W'+
25 $\mathrm{h}^0$ h0 35 $\H ^0$ H0
26     36 $\mathrm{A}^0$ A0
27     37 $\H ^+$ H+
28     38    
29     39 $\mathrm{G}$ Graviton
30     40    
      41 $\mathrm{R}^0$ R0
      42 $\L _{\mathrm{Q}}$ LQ

Exotic particle codes.
The positions 43-80 are used as temporary sites for exotic particles that eventually may be shifted to a separate code sequence. Currently this list only consists of the particle codes 45 and 46, described among the Supersymmetric codes below. The ones not in use are at your disposal, but with no guarantees that they will remain so.

Various special codes, Table [*].
In a Monte Carlo, it is always necessary to have codes that do not correspond to any specific particle, but are used to lump together groups of similar particles for decay treatment (nowadays largely obsolete), to specify generic decay products (also obsolete), or generic intermediate states in external processes, or additional event record information from jet searches. These codes, which again are non-standard, are found between numbers 81 and 100.
The junction, code 88, is not a physical particle but marks the place in the event record where three string pieces come together in a point, e.g. a Y-shaped topology with a quark at each end. No distinction is made between a junction and an antijunction, i.e. whether a baryon or an antibaryon is going to be produced in the neighbourhood of the junction.

Table: Various special codes.
KF Printed Meaning
81 specflav Spectator flavour; used in decay-product listings
82 rndmflav A random $\u $, $\d $, or $\mathrm{s}$ flavour; possible decay product
83 phasespa Simple isotropic phase-space decay
84 c-hadron Information on decay of generic charm hadron
85 b-hadron Information on decay of generic bottom hadron
88 junction A junction of three string pieces
89   (internal use for unspecified resonance data)
90 system Intermediate pseudoparticle in external process
91 cluster Parton system in cluster fragmentation
92 string Parton system in string fragmentation
93 indep. Parton system in independent fragmentation
94 CMshower Four-momentum of time-like showering system
95 SPHEaxis Event axis found with PYSPHE
96 THRUaxis Event axis found with PYTHRU
97 CLUSjet Jet (cluster) found with PYCLUS
98 CELLjet Jet (cluster) found with PYCELL
99 table Tabular output from PYTABU

Diquark codes, Table [*].
A diquark made up of a quark with code $i$ and another with code $j$, where $i \geq j$, and with total spin $s$, is given the code
\mathtt{KF} = 1000 i + 100 j + 2s + 1 ~,
\end{displaymath} (14)

i.e. the tens position is left empty (cf. the baryon code below). Some of the most frequently used codes are listed in the table. All the lowest-lying spin 0 and 1 diquarks are included in the program.

Table: Diquark codes. For brevity, diquarks containing $c$ or $b$ quarks are not listed, but are defined analogously.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
      1103 $\d\d _1$ dd_1
2101 $\u\d _0$ ud_0 2103 $\u\d _1$ ud_1
      2203 $\u\u _1$ uu_1
3101 $\mathrm{s}\d _0$ sd_0 3103 $\mathrm{s}\d _1$ sd_1
3201 $\mathrm{s}\u _0$ su_0 3203 $\mathrm{s}\u _1$ su_1
      3303 $\mathrm{s}\mathrm{s}_1$ ss_1

Meson codes, Tables [*] and [*].
A meson made up of a quark with code $i$ and an antiquark with code $-j$, $j \neq i$, and with total spin $s$, is given the code
\mathtt{KF} = \left\{ 100 \max(i,j) + 10 \min(i,j) + 2s + 1 \right\}
\, \mathrm{sign}(i-j) \, (-1)^{\max(i,j)} ~,
\end{displaymath} (15)

assuming it is not orbitally or radially excited. Note the presence of an extra $-$ sign if the heaviest quark is a down-type one. This is in accordance with the particle-antiparticle distinction adopted in the 1986 Review of Particle Properties [PDG86]. It means for example that a $\mathrm{B}$ meson contains a $\overline{\mathrm{b}}$ antiquark rather than a $\b $ quark.

The flavour-diagonal states are arranged in order of ascending mass. Thus the obvious generalization of eq. ([*]) to $\mathtt{KF} = 110 i + 2 s + 1$ is only valid for charm and bottom. The lighter quark states can appear mixed, e.g. the $\pi^0$ (111) is an equal mixture of $\d\overline{\mathrm{d}}$ (naïvely code 111) and $\u\overline{\mathrm{u}}$ (naïvely code 221).

The standard rule of having the last digit of the form $2s+1$ is broken for the $\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{S}}^0$- $\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{L}}^0$ system, where it is 0, and this convention should carry over to mixed states in the $\mathrm{B}$ meson system, should one choose to define such. For higher multiplets with the same spin, $\pm$10000, $\pm$20000, etc., are added to provide the extra distinction needed. Some of the most frequently used codes are given below.

The full lowest-lying pseudoscalar and vector multiplets are included in the program, Table [*].

Table: Meson codes, part 1.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
211 $\pi^+$ pi+ 213 $\rho^+$ rho+
311 $\mathrm{K}^0$ K0 313 $\mathrm{K}^{*0}$ K*0
321 $\mathrm{K}^+$ K+ 323 $\mathrm{K}^{*+}$ K*+
411 $\mathrm{D}^+$ D+ 413 $\mathrm{D}^{*+}$ D*+
421 $\mathrm{D}^0$ D0 423 $\mathrm{D}^{*0}$ D*0
431 $\mathrm{D}_{\mathrm{s}}^+$ D_s+ 433 $\mathrm{D}_{\mathrm{s}}^{*+}$ D*_s+
511 $\mathrm{B}^0$ B0 513 $\mathrm{B}^{*0}$ B*0
521 $\mathrm{B}^+$ B+ 523 $\mathrm{B}^{*+}$ B*+
531 $\mathrm{B}_{\mathrm{s}}^0$ B_s0 533 $\mathrm{B}_{\mathrm{s}}^{*0}$ B*_s0
541 $\mathrm{B}_{\c }^+$ B_c+ 543 $\mathrm{B}_{\c }^{*+}$ B*_c+
111 $\pi^0$ pi0 113 $\rho^0$ rho0
221 $\eta$ eta 223 $\omega$ omega
331 $\eta'$ eta' 333 $\phi$ phi
441 $\eta_{\c }$ eta_c 443 $\mathrm{J}/\psi $ J/psi
551 $\eta_{\b }$ eta_b 553 $\Upsilon$ Upsilon
130 $\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{L}}^0$ K_L0      
310 $\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{S}}^0$ K_S0      

Also the lowest-lying orbital angular momentum $L = 1$ mesons are included, Table [*]: one pseudovector multiplet obtained for total quark-spin 0 ( $L = 1, S = 0 \Rightarrow J = 1$) and one scalar, one pseudovector and one tensor multiplet obtained for total quark-spin 1 ( $L = 1, S = 1 \Rightarrow J = 0, 1$ or 2), where $J$ is what is conventionally called the spin $s$ of the meson. Any mixing between the two pseudovector multiplets is not taken into account. Please note that some members of these multiplets have still not been found, and are included here only based on guesswork. Even for known ones, the information on particles (mass, width, decay modes) is highly incomplete.

Only two radial excitations are included, the $\psi' = \psi(2S)$ and $\Upsilon' = \Upsilon(2S)$.

Table: Meson codes, part 2. For brevity, states with $b$ quark are omitted from this listing, but are defined in the program.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
10213 $\b _1$ b_1+ 10211 $\mathrm{a}_0^+$ a_0+
10313 $\mathrm{K}_1^0$ K_10 10311 $\mathrm{K}_0^{*0}$ K*_00
10323 $\mathrm{K}_1^+$ K_1+ 10321 $\mathrm{K}_0^{*+}$ K*_0+
10413 $\mathrm{D}_1^+$ D_1+ 10411 $\mathrm{D}_0^{*+}$ D*_0+
10423 $\mathrm{D}_1^0$ D_10 10421 $\mathrm{D}_0^{*0}$ D*_00
10433 $\mathrm{D}_{1 \mathrm{s}}^+$ D_1s+ 10431 $\mathrm{D}_{0 \mathrm{s}}^{*+}$ D*_0s+
10113 $\b _1^0$ b_10 10111 $\mathrm{a}_0^0$ a_00
10223 $\mathrm{h}_1^0$ h_10 10221 $\mathrm{f}_0^0$ f_00
10333 $\mathrm{h}'^0_1$ h'_10 10331 $\mathrm{f}'^0_0$ f'_00
10443 $\mathrm{h}_{1 \c }^0$ h_1c0 10441 $\chi_{0 \c }^0$ chi_0c0
20213 $\mathrm{a}_1^+$ a_1+ 215 $\mathrm{a}_2^+$ a_2+
20313 $\mathrm{K}_1^{*0}$ K*_10 315 $\mathrm{K}_2^{*0}$ K*_20
20323 $\mathrm{K}_1^{*+}$ K*_1+ 325 $\mathrm{K}_2^{*+}$ K*_2+
20413 $\mathrm{D}_1^{*+}$ D*_1+ 415 $\mathrm{D}_2^{*+}$ D*_2+
20423 $\mathrm{D}_1^{*0}$ D*_10 425 $\mathrm{D}_2^{*0}$ D*_20
20433 $\mathrm{D}_{1 \mathrm{s}}^{*+}$ D*_1s+ 435 $\mathrm{D}_{2 \mathrm{s}}^{*+}$ D*_2s+
20113 $\mathrm{a}_1^0$ a_10 115 $\mathrm{a}_2^0$ a_20
20223 $\mathrm{f}_1^0$ f_10 225 $\mathrm{f}_2^0$ f_20
20333 $\mathrm{f}'^0_1$ f'_10 335 $\mathrm{f}'^0_2$ f'_20
20443 $\chi_{1 \c }^0$ chi_1c0 445 $\chi_{2 \c }^0$ chi_2c0
100443 $\psi'$ psi'      
100553 $\Upsilon'$ Upsilon'      

Baryon codes, Table [*].
A baryon made up of quarks $i$, $j$ and $k$, with $i \geq j \geq k$, and total spin $s$, is given the code
\mathtt{KF} = 1000 i + 100 j + 10 k + 2s + 1 ~.
\end{displaymath} (16)

An exception is provided by spin $1/2$ baryons made up of three different types of quarks, where the two lightest quarks form a spin-0 diquark ($\Lambda$-like baryons). Here the order of the $j$ and $k$ quarks is reversed, so as to provide a simple means of distinction to baryons with the lightest quarks in a spin-1 diquark ($\Sigma$-like baryons).

For hadrons with heavy flavours, the root names are Lambda or Sigma for hadrons with two $\u $ or $\d $ quarks, Xi for those with one, and Omega for those without $\u $ or $\d $ quarks.

Some of the most frequently used codes are given in Table [*]. The full lowest-lying spin $1/2$ and $3/2$ multiplets are included in the program.

Table: Baryon codes. For brevity, some states with $b$ quarks or multiple $c$ ones are omitted from this listing, but are defined in the program.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
      1114 $\Delta^-$ Delta-
2112 $\mathrm{n}$ n0 2114 $\Delta^0$ Delta0
2212 $\mathrm{p}$ p+ 2214 $\Delta^+$ Delta+
      2224 $\Delta^{++}$ Delta++
3112 $\Sigma^-$ Sigma- 3114 $\Sigma^{*-}$ Sigma*-
3122 $\Lambda^0$ Lambda0      
3212 $\Sigma^0$ Sigma0 3214 $\Sigma^{*0}$ Sigma*0
3222 $\Sigma^+$ Sigma+ 3224 $\Sigma^{*+}$ Sigma*+
3312 $\Xi^-$ Xi- 3314 $\Xi^{*-}$ Xi*-
3322 $\Xi^0$ Xi0 3324 $\Xi^{*0}$ Xi*0
      3334 $\Omega^-$ Omega-
4112 $\Sigma_{\c }^0$ Sigma_c0 4114 $\Sigma_{\c }^{*0}$ Sigma*_c0
4122 $\Lambda_{\c }^+$ Lambda_c+      
4212 $\Sigma_{\c }^+$ Sigma_c+ 4214 $\Sigma_{\c }^{*+}$ Sigma*_c+
4222 $\Sigma_{\c }^{++}$ Sigma_c++ 4224 $\Sigma_{\c }^{*++}$ Sigma*_c++
4132 $\Xi_{\c }^0$ Xi_c0      
4312 $\Xi'^0_{\c }$ Xi'_c0 4314 $\Xi_{\c }^{*0}$ Xi*_c0
4232 $\Xi_{\c }^+$ Xi_c+      
4322 $\Xi'^+_{\c }$ Xi'_c+ 4324 $\Xi_{\c }^{*+}$ Xi*_c+
4332 $\Omega_{\c }^0$ Omega_c0 4334 $\Omega_{\c }^{*0}$ Omega*_c0
5112 $\Sigma_{\b }^-$ Sigma_b- 5114 $\Sigma_{\b }^{*-}$ Sigma*_b-
5122 $\Lambda_{\b }^0$ Lambda_b0      
5212 $\Sigma_{\b }^0$ Sigma_b0 5214 $\Sigma_{\b }^{*0}$ Sigma*_b0
5222 $\Sigma_{\b }^+$ Sigma_b+ 5224 $\Sigma_{\b }^{*+}$ Sigma*_b+

QCD effective states, Table [*].
We here include the pomeron $\mathrm{I}\!\mathrm{P}$ and reggeon $\mathrm{I}\!\mathrm{R}$ `particles', which are important e.g. in the description of diffractive scattering, but do not have a simple correspondence with other particles in the classification scheme.
Also included are codes to be used for denoting diffractive states in PYTHIA, as part of the event history. The first two digits here are 99 to denote the non-standard character. The second, third and fourth last digits give flavour content, while the very last one is 0, to denote the somewhat unusual character of the code. Only a few codes have been introduced with names; depending on circumstances these also have to double up for other diffractive states. Other diffractive codes for strange mesons and baryon beams are also accepted by the program, but do not give nice printouts.

Table: QCD effective states.
KF Printed Meaning
110 reggeon reggeon $\mathrm{I}\!\mathrm{R}$
990 pomeron pomeron $\mathrm{I}\!\mathrm{P}$
9900110 rho_diff0 Diffractive $\pi^0 / \rho^0 / \gamma$ state
9900210 pi_diffr+ Diffractive $\pi^+$ state
9900220 omega_di0 Diffractive $\omega$ state
9900330 phi_diff0 Diffractive $\phi$ state
9900440 J/psi_di0 Diffractive $\mathrm{J}/\psi $ state
9902110 n_diffr Diffractive $\mathrm{n}$ state
9902210 p_diffr+ Diffractive $\mathrm{p}$ state

Supersymmetric codes, Table [*].
SUSY doubles the number of states of the Standard Model (at least). Fermions have separate superpartners to the left- and right-handed components. In the third generation these are assumed to mix to nontrivial mass eigenstates, while mixing is not included in the first two. Note that all sparticle names begin with a tilde. Default masses are arbitrary and branching ratios not set at all. This is taken care of at initialization if IMSS(1) is positive. The $\H ^0_3$, $\mathrm{A}^0_2$ and $\tilde{\chi}^0_5$ states at the bottom of the table only appear in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), do not have standardized codes and are not fully implemented in PYTHIA, but can optionally (see IMSS(13)) be used in the context of interfaces to other programs.

Table: Supersymmetric codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
1000001 $\tilde{\mathrm d}_L$ $\sim$d_L 2000001 $\tilde{\mathrm d}_R$ $\sim$d_R
1000002 $\tilde{\mathrm u}_L$ $\sim$u_L 2000002 $\tilde{\mathrm u}_R$ $\sim$u_R
1000003 $\tilde{\mathrm s}_L$ $\sim$s_L 2000003 $\tilde{\mathrm s}_R$ $\sim$s_R
1000004 $\tilde{\mathrm c}_L$ $\sim$c_L 2000004 $\tilde{\mathrm c}_R$ $\sim$c_R
1000005 $\tilde{\mathrm b}_1$ $\sim$b_1 2000005 $\tilde{\mathrm b}_2$ $\sim$b_2
1000006 $\tilde{\mathrm t}_1$ $\sim$t_1 2000006 $\tilde{\mathrm t}_2$ $\sim$t_2
1000011 $\tilde{\mathrm e}_L$ $\sim$e_L- 2000011 $\tilde{\mathrm e}_R$ $\sim$e_R-
1000012 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\mathrm{e}}L}$ $\sim$nu_eL 2000012 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\mathrm{e}}R}$ $\sim$nu_eR
1000013 $\tilde{\mu}_L$ $\sim$mu_L- 2000013 $\tilde{\mu}_R$ $\sim$mu_R-
1000014 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\mu}L}$ $\sim$nu_muL 2000014 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\mu}R}$ $\sim$nu_muR
1000015 $\tilde\tau _1$ $\sim$tau_L- 2000015 $\tilde\tau _2$ $\sim$tau_R-
1000016 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\tau}L}$ $\sim$nu_tauL 2000016 $\tilde{\nu}_{{\tau}R}$ $\sim$nu_tauR
1000021 $\tilde{\mathrm g}$ $\sim$g 1000025 $\tilde{\chi}^0_3$ $\sim$chi_30
1000022 $\tilde{\chi}^0_1$ $\sim$chi_10 1000035 $\tilde{\chi}^0_4$ $\sim$chi_40
1000023 $\tilde{\chi}^0_2$ $\sim$chi_20 1000037 $\tilde{\chi}^+_2$ $\sim$chi_2+
1000024 $\tilde{\chi}^+_1$ $\sim$chi_1+ 1000039 $\tilde{\mathrm G}$ $\sim$Gravitino
45 $\H ^0_3$ H_30 1000045 $\tilde{\chi}^0_5$ $\sim$chi_50
46 $\mathrm{A}^0_2$ A_20      

Technicolor codes, Table [*].
A set of colourless and coloured technihadrons have been included. The colourless technivector mesons and most of the colourless technipions are associated with the original strawman model of technicolor. The coloured technirho mesons (KF $=3100113, 3200113, 3300113
$ and $3100113$), a Coloron (or $\mathrm{V}_8$), and additional colour singlet (KF$=3100111$) and colour octet (KF=$3100111$) technipions arise in the extended model of Topcolor assisted Technicolor (TC2). Additional indices on these technihadrons refer to two strongly interacting groups SU(3)$_1 \times $SU(3)$_2$, one for the first two generations and a second for the third generation, which is broken down to ordinary SU(3)$_\mathrm{C}$.
The $\eta_{\mathrm{tc}}$ belongs to an older iteration of Technicolor modelling than the rest. It was originally given the 3000221 code, and thereby now comes to clash with the ${\pi'}^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ of the current main scenario. Since the $\eta_{\mathrm{tc}}$ is one-of-a-kind, it was deemed better to move it to make way for the ${\pi'}^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$. This leads to a slight inconsistency with the PDG codes.

Table: Technicolor codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
3000111 $\pi^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ pi_tc0 3100021 $\mathrm{V}_{8,\mathrm{tc}}$ V8_tc
3000211 $\pi^+_{\mathrm{tc}}$ pi_tc+ 3100111 $\pi^0_{22,1,\mathrm{tc}}$ pi_22_1_tc
3000221 ${\pi'}^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ pi'_tc0 3200111 $\pi^0_{22,8,\mathrm{tc}}$ pi_22_8_tc
3000113 $\rho^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_tc0 3100113 $\rho^0_{11,\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_11_tc
3000213 $\rho^+_{\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_tc+ 3200113 $\rho^0_{12,\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_12_tc
3000223 $\omega^0_{\mathrm{tc}}$ omega_tc0 3300113 $\rho^0_{21,\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_21_tc
3000331 $\eta_{\mathrm{tc}}$ eta_tc0 3400113 $\rho^0_{22,\mathrm{tc}}$ rho_22_tc

Excited fermion codes, Table [*].
A first generation of excited fermions are included.

Table: Excited fermion codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
4000001 $\u ^*$ d* 4000011 $\mathrm{e}^*$ e*-
4000002 $\d ^*$ u* 4000012 $\nu^*_{\mathrm{e}}$ nu*_e0

Exotic particle codes, Table [*].
This section includes the excited graviton, as the first (but probably not last) manifestation of the possibility of large extra dimensions. Although it is not yet in the PDG standard, we assume that such states will go in a new series of numbers.
Included is also a set of particles associated with an extra SU(2) gauge group for right-handed states, as required in order to obtain a left-right symmetric theory at high energies. This includes right-handed (Majorana) neutrinos, right-handed $\mathrm{Z}_R^0$ and $\mathrm{W}_R^{\pm}$ gauge bosons, and both left- and right-handed doubly charged Higgs bosons. Such a scenario would also contain other Higgs states, but these do not bring anything new relative to the ones already introduced, from an observational point of view. Here the first two digits are 99 to denote the non-standard character.

Table: Exotic particle codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
5000039 $\mathrm{G}^*$ Graviton*      
9900012 $\nu_{R\mathrm{e}}$ nu_Re 9900023 $\mathrm{Z}_R^0$ Z_R0
9900014 $\nu_{R\mu}$ nu_Rmu 9900024 $\mathrm{W}_R^+$ W_R+
9900016 $\nu_{R\tau}$ nu_Rtau 9900041 $\H _L^{++}$ H_L++
      9900042 $\H _R^{++}$ H_R++

Colour octet state codes, Table [*].
Within the colour octet approach to charmonium and bottomonium production, intermediate colour octet states can be produced and subsequently `decay' to the normal singlet states by soft-gluon emission. The codes have been chosen 9900000 bigger than the respective colour-singlet state, so that they occur among the generator-specific codes. The names are based on spectroscopic notation, with additional upper index $(8)$ to reflect the colour octet nature.

Table: Colour octet state codes.
KF Name Printed KF Name Printed
9900443 $\c\overline{\mathrm{c}}[^3S_1^{(8)}]$ cc$\sim$[3S18] 9900553 $\b\overline{\mathrm{b}}[^3S_1^{(8)}]$ bb$\sim$[3S18]
9900441 $\c\overline{\mathrm{c}}[^1S_0^{(8)}]$ cc$\sim$[1S08] 9900551 $\b\overline{\mathrm{b}}[^1S_0^{(8)}]$ bb$\sim$[1S08]
9910443 $\c\overline{\mathrm{c}}[^3P_0^{(8)}]$ cc$\sim$[3P08] 9910553 $\b\overline{\mathrm{b}}[^3P_0^{(8)}]$ bb$\sim$[3P08]

A hint on large particle numbers: if you want to avoid mistyping the number of zeros, it may pay off to define a statement like

      PARAMETER (KSUSY1=1000000,KSUSY2=2000000,KTECHN=3000000,

at the beginning of your program and then refer to particles as KSUSY1+1 = $\tilde{\mathrm d}_L$ and so on. This then also agrees with the internal notation (where feasible).

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Stephen Mrenna 2007-10-30